GI/Dagstuhl Research Seminar

Model-based Testing of Reactive Systems

January 12-15, 2004, Schloss Dagstuhl

Subjects

We will give an detailed account to formal approaches of testing as well as relations to other validation techniques like model checking.

There are several schools of formal testing. We will give an account to some of them providing the basis for a comparison. We will show the similarities and differences in each approach. In general, we concentrate on so-called black-box testing. In this setting, the system under test is not given explicitly but may only be analyzed using interaction in terms of input and output actions.

T1: Testing of finite state machines (5 chapters)

Coordinator: Martin Leucker and Bengt Jonsson

During the last 50 years, a rich testing theory has been developed for testing finite state machines that produce outputs on state transitions after receiving inputs (also known as Mealy machines). Typical problems addressed in the domain of finite state machine testing are

Further keywords in this area are transition tour, postman, unique input/output sequence etc.

An overview of testing finite state machines is given in [LY96]. It will serve as a starting point for the chapters dealing with testing finite state machines.

T2: Preorder-based testing of labeled transition systems (5 chapters)

Coordinator: Joost-Pieter Katoen

The theory of testing transition systems was initiated by the work of De Nicola and Hennessy in [MN83]. The basic goal is to test whether one transition system is an implementation of another one. Therefore, several notions of implementation relations were introduced and studied. A usually infinite number of test cases is identified that characterizes the implementation relation. The work was later extended towards transition systems in which input and output actions are distinguished.

In [BT01], an annotated bibliography for this approach is given which points out the relevant work in this area.

Recently, extensions to cover real-time or probabilistic systems have been studied, for example in [SVD01] and [SV03].

To turn this approach into a practical method, a finite number of test cases has to be selected out the infinite set describing the implementation relation. The goal is to choose test cases that cover the infinite set, as good as possible. This approach is studied in [FGMT02,Bri94].

This model also assumes that the tester communicates with the system under test is a synchronous manner. In practice, however, the two systems often interact via queues. [TV92] discusses this problem.

Chapters:

  1. [T2.1] Preorder relations: Bruda (44)
  2. [T2.2] Test generation algorithms based on preorders: Tschaen (13)
  3. [T2.3] I/O-automata based testing: vd Bijl (8) & Peureux (20)
  4. [T2.4] Testing theory for timed systems: Briones (34) & Röhl
  5. [T2.5] Testing theory for probabilistic systems: Wolf (29) & Tepper (39)

T3: Model-based testing--the basics (3 chapters)

Coordinator: Alexander Pretschner

In the setting of model-based testing, a formal model of an implementation is given. The goal is to check whether the implementation conforms to the model. Usually, testing is restricted to certain interesting test cases for which conformance is checked. Here, a test case is a sequence of input and (expected) output values. Test cases are usually determined in terms of test specifications that specify which part of the system is to be tested. Often, test specifications are given in form of coverage criteria.

Typical models are extended finite state machines in which states are enriched with data or time variables. Thus, the model is usually not concrete in the sense that every state of the system is represented as a single state in the model. It is abstract so that abstract test cases require instantiation into to concrete ones.

There is a huge number on papers on specifying and generating test cases. A selection of these methods describing basic ideas will be presented. The focus is on techniques rather than on which test cases to specify. One approach, for example, is to specify coverage criteria by means of temporal logic. Test cases are then witnesses or counter examples for the underlying formula and the model. Among model checkers, test case generation technology includes symbolic execution or deductive theorem proving.

This yields the following chapters. By no means are the references intended to be comprehensive, and the authors are encouraged to add further literature.

T3.1
technology: model checking [ABM98,HLSU02], symbolic execution [Kin76,Cla76,How77,How78,RHC76,LP01,PPS$^+$03], LTS exploration [RWNH98,dZ99], theorem proving [HNS97,BCM01,Sad98]: Hong (6) & Samer (9) & Lucio (25)
T3.2
Real-Time and Hybrid Systems Testing [PS97,Nie00,HPPS03,Weg01]: Hessel (2) & Berkenkoetter (22) & Kirner (33)
T3.3
Coverage based test case generation [HLSU02,RH01,Pre03,WBP02], as compared to functional test case specifications and random testing [DN84,Nta98,HT90,Gut99] and user profiles: Gaston (18) & Seifert (17) & Mueck (15)

T4: Tools and case studies (2 chapters)

Coordinator: Alexander Pretschner

T4.1
Tools for test case generation. Some of the tools have been compared in [Gog01,Har02]: Belinfante (23) & Frantzen (28) & Schallhart (10)
T4.2
Case studies: chip cards [PPS$^+$03,LP01,CJRZ01], processors [DBG01,SA99,FKL99], parts of OS and exception handling [FHP02]: Prenninger (48) & El-Ramly (14) & Horstmann

T5: Test execution (2 chapters)

Coordinator: Martin Leucker

To allow different testing tools to be employed in practice, standards have to be developed for test execution, i.e., the interaction of a testing tool with the system under test. TTCN-3 [Wil01] is a language for describing the test setup as well as test cases. A compiler then produces a program that runs the given tests cases: Din(7).
ISO 9646 as well as IEC 1131 and related standards should be taken into account: Zhen Ru Dai (24).

T6: Model checking, runtime verification, and testing (3 chapters)

Coordinator: Martin Leucker

T6.1
In the domain of run-time verification, one studies the question how to check properties of a system while executing it. In [HR02], for example, monitors for temporal logic formulas are generated that check whether a property is satisfied or violated. Obviously, there is a strong relationship between model-checking, run-time verification, and testing which will be elaborated in this part1: Colin (21) & Mariani (31) & Omitola (26)
T6.2
Model checking is one of the key techniques in verifying hard- but also software systems. The formal theory of model checking is well developed in contrast to the domain of testing. It is, however, likely that many achievements in the domain of model checking are valuable for formal testing as well. Recently, several attempts have been made. Adaptive model checking [GPY02] combines learning [Ang87] of automata and model checking to study an underlying system: Berg (1) & Raffelt (43)

Bibliography

ABM98
P. Ammann, P. Black, and W. Majurski.
Using model checking to generate tests from specifications.
In Proc. 2nd IEEE Intl. Conf. on Formal Engineering Methods, pages 46-54, 1998.

Ang87
Dana Angluin.
Learning regular sets from queries and counterexamples.
Information and Computation, 75:87-106, 1987.

BCM01
S. Burton, J. Clark, and J. McDermid.
Automatic generation of tests from Statechart specifications.
In Proc. Formal Approaches to Testing of Software, pages 31-46, 2001.

BDA96
C. Bourhfir, R. Dssouli, and E. Aboulhamid.
Automatic test generation for EFSM-based systems.
Technical Report IRO 1043, University of Montreal, August 1996.

Bri94
Ed Brinksma.
On the coverage of partial validations.
In Maurice Nivat, Charles Rattray, Teodor Rus, and Giuseppe Scollo, editors, Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology (AMAST '93), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Methodology and Software Technology, Workshops in Computing, pages 245-252. Springer, 1994.

BT01
Ed Brinksma and Jan Tretmans.
Testing transition systems: An annotated bibliography.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2067:187-??, 2001.

CGPT96
M. Clatin, R. Groz, M. Phalippou, and R. Thummel.
Two approaches linking test generation with verification techniques.
In A. Cavalli and S. Budkowski, editors, 8th International Workshop on Protocol Test Systems. Chapman & Hall, 1996.

CJRZ01
D. Clarke, T. Jéron, V. Rusu, and E. Zinovieva.
Automated Test and Oracle Generation for Smart-Card Applications.
In Proc. E-smart, pages 58-70, 2001.

CJRZ02
D. Clarke, T. Jéron, V. Rusu, and E. Zinovieva.
STG: A Symbolic Test Generation Tool.
In Proc. TACAS'02, pages 470-475, 2002.

Cla76
L. Clarke.
A System to Generate Test Data and Symbolically Execute Programs.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, SE-2(3):215-222, September 1976.

DBG01
J. Dushina, M. Benjamin, and D. Geist.
Semi-Formal Test Generation with Genevieve.
In Proc. DAC, 2001.

DN84
J. Duran and S. Ntafos.
An Evaluation of Random Testing.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, SE-10(4):438-444, July 1984.

dZ99
L. du Bousquet and N. Zuanon.
An overview of Lutess, a specification-based tool for testing synchronous software.
In Proc. 14th IEEE Intl. Conf. on Automated SW Engineering, October 1999.

FGMT02
Loe M. G. Feijs, Nicolae Goga, Sjouke Mauw, and Jan Tretmans.
Test selection, trace distance, and heuristics.
In Ina Schieferdecker, Harmut könig, and Adam Wolisz, editors, Proceedings of the IFIP 14th International Conference on Testing Communicating Systems - TestCom 2002, volume 210 of IFIP Conference Proceedings. Kluwer, 2002.

FHP02
E. Farchi, A. Hartman, and S. Pinter.
Using a model-based test generator to test for standard conformance.
IBM Systems Journal, 41(1):89-110, 2002.

FJJV96
J.-C. Fernandez, C. Jard, T. Jéron, and C. Viho.
Using on-the-fly verification techniques for the generation of test suites.
In Proc. 8th Intl. Conf. on Computer-Aided Verification, July 1996.

FKL99
L. Fournier, A. Koyfman, and M. Levinger.
Developing an Architecture Validation Suite--Application to the PowerPC Architecture.
In Proc. 36th ACM Design Automation Conf., pages 189-194, 1999.

Gog01
N. Goga.
Comparing TorX, autolink, TGV and UIO test algorithms.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2078:379-??, 2001.

GPY02
Alex Groce, Doron Peled, and Mihalis Yannakakis.
Adaptive model checking.
In Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS'02), volume 2280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 357-??, 2002.

Gut99
W. Gutjahr.
Partition testing versus random testing: the influence of uncertainty.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 25(5):661-674, 1999.

Har02
A. Hartman.
Model Based Test Generation Tools.
www.agedis.de/documents/d282_5/ModelBasedTestGenerationTools.pdf, 2002.

HLSU02
H. Hong, I. Lee, O. Sokolsky, and H. Ural.
A Temporal Logic Based Theory of Test Coverage and Generation.
In Proc. TACAS'02, 2002.

HNS97
S. Helke, T. Neustupny, and T. Santen.
Automating Test Case Generation from Z Specifications with Isabelle.
In Proc. 10th Intl. Conf. of Z Users, pages 52-71, 1997.
Springer LNCS 1212.

How77
W. Howden.
Symbolic Testing and the DISSECT Symbolic Evaluation System.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, SE-3(4):266-278, July 1977.

How78
W. Howden.
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Symbolic Testing.
Software--Practice and Experience, 8:381-397, 1978.

HPPS03
G. Hahn, J. Philipps, A. Pretschner, and T. Stauner.
Prototype-based Tests for Hybrid Reactive Systems.
In Proc. RSP'03, pages 78-86, 2003.

HR02
K. Havelund and G. Rosu.
Synthesizing monitors for safety properties.
In J.-P. Katoen and P. Stevens, editors, Proc. TACAS '02, $ 8^{th}$ Int. Conf. on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, volume 2280 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 324-356. Springer Verlag, 2002.

HT90
D. Hamlet and R. Taylor.
Partition Test Does Not Inspire Confidence.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 16(12):1402-1411, December 1990.

KGHS98
B. Koch, J. Grabowski, D. Hogrefe, and M. Schmitt.
AutoLink--A Tool for Automatic Test Generation from SDL Specifications.
In Proc. IEEE Intl. Workshop on Industrial Strength Formal Specification Techniques, October 1998.

Kin76
J. King.
Symbolic Execution and Program Testing.
Communications of the ACM, 19(7):385-394, July 1976.

LP01
B. Legeard and F. Peureux.
Génération de séquences de tests à partir d'une spécification B en PLC ensembliste.
In Proc. Approches Formelles dans l'Assistance au Développement de Logiciels, pages 113-130, June 2001.

LY96
D. Lee and M. Yannakakis.
Principles and methods of testing finite state machines - a survey.
Proc. IEEE, 84(8):1090-1126, 1996.

MA00
B. Marre and A. Arnould.
Test Sequence Generation from Lustre Descriptions: GATEL.
In Proc. 15th IEEE Intl. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering (ASE'00), Grenoble, 2000.

MN83
M.Hennessy and R. De Nicola.
Testing equivalences for processes.
In Proc. ICALP '83, 1983.

Nie00
B. Nielsen.
Speification and Test of Real-Time Systems.
PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, 2000.

Nta98
S. Ntafos.
On Random and Partition Testing.
In Proc. Intl. Symp. on Software Testing and Analysis, pages 42-48, 1998.

PPS$^+$03
J. Philipps, A. Pretschner, O. Slotosch, E. Aiglstorfer, S. Kriebel, and K. Scholl.
Model-based test case generation for smart cards.
Proc. Formal Methods for Industria Critical Systems, 2003.

Pre03
A. Pretschner.
Compositional generation for MC/DC test suites.
In Proceedings of TACoS'03, pages 1-11, 2003.
Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 82(6).

PS97
J. Peleska and M. Siegel.
Test Automation of Safety-Critical Reactive Systems.
South African Computer Journal, 19:53-77, 1997.

RdJ00
V. Rusu, L. du Bousquet, and T. Jéron.
An Approach to Symbolic Test Generation.
In Proc. Integrated Formal Methods, 2000.

RH01
S. Rayadurgan and M. Heimdahl.
Coverage Based Test-Case Generation using Model Checkers.
In Proc. 8th Intl. Conf. and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems, pages 83-93, 2001.

RHC76
C. Ramamoorthy, S. Ho, and W. Chen.
On the Automated Generation of Program Test Data.
IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, SE-2(4):293-300, December 1976.

RWNH98
P. Raymond, D. Weber, X. Nicollin, and N. Halbwachs.
Automatic testing of reactive systems.
In Proc. 19th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, 1998.

SA99
J. Shen and J. Abraham.
An RTL Abstraction Technique for Processor Micorarchitecture Validation and Test Generation.
J. Electronic Testing: Theory&Application, 16(1-2):67-81, February 1999.

Sad98
S. Sadeghipour.
Testing Cyclic Software Components of Reactive Systems on the Basis of Formal Specifications.
PhD thesis, TU Berlin, 1998.

SV03
M.I.A. Stoelinga and F.W. Vaandrager.
A testing scenario for probabilistic automata.
In Proc. ICALP '2003, $ 30^{th}$ International Colloquium on Automata, Lnaguages, and Programming, 2003.
to appear.

SVD01
Jan Springintveld, Frits Vaandrager, and Pedro R. D'Argenio.
Testing timed automata.
Theoretical Computer Science, 254(1-2):225-257, March 2001.

TV92
J. Tretmans and L. Verhaard.
A queue model relating synchronous and asynchronous communication.
In Proceedings of the $ 12^{th}$ International Conference on Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification. North-Holland, 1992.

Ura92
H. Ural.
Formal methods for test sequence generation.
Computer Communications, 15(5):311-325, June 1992.

VTB$^+$00
R. de Vries, J. Tretmans, A. Belinfante, J. Feenstra, L. Feijs, S. Mauw, N. Goga, L. Heerink, and A. de Heer.
Côte de Resyste in Progress.
In Progress 2000 - Workshop on Embedded Systems, pages 141-148, October 2000.

WBP02
J. Wegener, K. Buhr, and H. Pohlheim.
Automatic Test Data Generation for Structural Testing of Embedded Software Systems by Evolutionary Testing.
In Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, July 2002.

Weg01
J. Wegener.
Evolutionärer Test des Zeitverhaltens von Realzeit-Systemen.
PhD thesis, Humboldt Universität Berlin, 2001.

Wil01
A. Wiles.
ETSI testing activities and the use of TTCN-3.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2078:123-??, 2001.



Footnotes

... part1
Note that the issue is to compare the power of the different validation techniques, rather than studying the question whether one domain can be used for the other one. Such questions, like how model checkers can be used to generate test cases, are studied in the appropriate testing chapters.


Martin Leucker 2003-11-08