It is well-known that the eigenvalues of (real) symmetric banded Toeplitz matrices of size n are approximately given by an equispaced sampling of the symbol f(theta), up to an error which grows at most as h=(n+1)-1, where the symbol is a real-valued cosine polynomial.
Under the condition that f is monotone, we show that there is hierarchy of symbols so that
λj(h)-f(thetaj(h))=sumk ck(thetaj(h)) hk, thetaj(h)=jpi h, j=1,...,n,
with ck(theta) higher order symbols. In the general case, a more complicate expression holds but still we find a structural hierarchy of symbols. The latter asymptotic expansions constitute a starting point for computing the eigenvalues of large symmetric banded Toeplitz matrices by using classical extrapolation methods.
Selected numerics are shown in 1D and a similar study is briefly discussed in the multilevel setting (dD, dge 2) with blocks included, so opening the door to a fast computation of the spectrum of matrices approximating partial differential operators.
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